Differential protection is also used in protecting other high value assets such as medium voltage motors, reactors, switchgear etc. Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance Stabilisation is achieved by means of a stabilising resistor, RS, intended to raise the operating voltage of the system. A relative plateau slope of less than 10% per 100 volts is acceptable. A few of the basic principles of En-Masse conveying are: A square cross-section housing is the most efficient. Under normal operating conditions, the curve has a plateau with a small slope and a length of several hundred volts. Functional diagram of Dual slope ADC. To provide security for higher levels of through-current where CT errors reach up to 10%, a second slope is introduced forming a dual slope characteristic. The slope, or tilt exhibited by the amplifier about the low portion of its passband is automatically adjusted and maintained by feedback action. What is integrating type converter?Explain the operation of dual slope ADC: An ADC converter that perform conversion in an indirect manner by first changing the analog I/P signal to a linear function of time or frequency and then to a digital code is known as integrating type A/D converter. The dual slope ADC circuit is shown in the figure below. Delta-Sigma ADC: It has high resolution but slow due to over sampling. Dual slope ADCs are accurate but not terribly fast. The seal is subjected to a great deal of pressure variations and must operate and must operate and seal whether the crankshaft is rotating or is stationary. In this simplified representation, two assumptions are made. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] By using the principle of the dual-slope integral ADC, voltage can be accurately measured. Clearance must be accurate (to.000001 inch or .0000254 mm) between the rotating and stationary surfaces, and lubrication fills that tiny gap. 2. Fundamental Principles Behind the Sigma-Delta ADC Topology: Part 1. by Michael Clifford Download PDF. The low-impedance operating principle is enhanced by the use of the Saturation Detector and a The dual slope techniques eliminate the sensitivities and hence the mostly implemented approach in DVMs. The principle way they convert analog to digital values is by using an integrator. As explained in the Theory of Operation section, the relay uses a dual-slope dual-breakpoint differential characteristic with the restraint signal created as the maximum among the magnitudes of the circuit connected to the protected bus. Granular soils with higher void sizes like sand, allow better water movement than compact soils with smaller void sizes like clay. Keywords: Time to digital conversion, Vernier delay line, DLL. The aim of this article is to give the reader the base knowledge on the fundamental principles behind the Σ- ADC topology. This is the basic working principle of a transformer differential protection relay. Differential protection in a transformer provides superior protection against: The protective scheme should operate only for the internal fault, and it must be insensitive for any fault outside the zone of protection. Dual Slope ADC: It have high accuracy but very slow in operation. Principles of Exterior Drainage — Quick Review 3 Soil Function Soil acts as a pervious medium that provides passageways for water to move into the subsurface.The passage of water depends greatly upon the size of the voids in the soil structure. The Intersil ICL7106 is an ADC that operates on the dual-slope principle. The correct temperature may be obtained by using a disposable thermocouple. Dual Slope A/D Converters. The differential protection of power transformer is a unit protection scheme. 4(b). (ii) Dual slope integrating type Digital Voltmeter. Why is the ramp method of analogue-to-digital conversion an indirect method? More specifically, the low band pilot (e.g. Dual slope conversion is very much preferred in precise digital multi-meters, and also in 10-bit to 18-bit conversion modules. Figure 3 shows these errors stacked to together to form a single slope characteristic. the channel 4 video carrier) is monitored and detected at the amplifier output. The ramp type DVM (single slope) is very simple yet has several drawbacks. This paper carries the idea of selection of dual slope differential relay parameters for various faulty conditions on the system. Flash ADC: It is the fastest ADC but very expensive. The integration phase. Differential protection offers fast and reliable protection of critical asset such as a transformer. Basic principles In general, the analog to digital converters is divided to two main parts, single-slope and dual-slope conversion. This is shown in figure 4. In phase I the integrating capacitor CF is charged for a predetermined period of time T1. 4. ... A DC-DC buck converter operates in continuous conduction mode. Pipeline ADC: It is same as that of two step Flash ADC. As its name suggests, this converter has 2 phases, the first where a voltage ramps up with a certain slope, and the second where the same voltage ramps down with a different slope. A column-parallel dual-gain single-slope ADC comprises an input for receiving a signal V in, a sample-and-hold stage which receives V in and outputs sampled signal V in,samp, a comparator, a counter, and a ramp generator which generates high-gain (HG) and low-gain (LG) ramps, with the ratio of the LG ramp slope to the HG ramp slope being greater than 1. The TDC operates at clock frequency of 200 MHz, and is composed of 500 delay–latch elements. The switching frequency of the converter is 250 Hz. Thus, the proposed topologies provide a new choice for electronic engineers, … Dual converters are ideal that means they produce pure DC output terminals without containing any ripples. Consider the figure below. power-line), for applications where speed is less required makes it quite relevant for this thesis. When viewing the molten metal, the E-Slope adjustment is turned until the instrument reads the correct metal temperature. The seal is commonly made of hardened steel a bronze, ceramic, or carbon. To start a conversion, two things happen simultaneously: the residue ADC is used to measure the approximate charge currently on the integrator capacitor and the counters monitoring the multi-slope run-up are reset. In a digital current differential relay it is possible to enhance the adaptive restraint concept beyond ALD500R-50QE: Description PRECISION INTEGRATING ANALOG PROCESSOR WITH PRECISION VOLTAGE REFERENCE: Download 12 Pages: Scroll/Zoom: 100% The slope characteristic provides high sensitivity when low levels of current are flowing in the zone of protection but has less sensitivity when high levels of current are flowing and false differential current due to current transformer (CT) saturation is more likely. These conveyors operate by dragging or scraping a bulk solid through a trough utilizing the flight “paddle” to provide the movement. The auto-zero phase The integration phase The de-integration phase All the phases. ALD500R-50QE Datasheet(PDF) 2 Page - Advanced Linear Devices: Part No. It has 48 V input voltage, and it feeds a resistive load of 24 Ω. When the fault occurs the fuses blow out and the fault current flows through the relay coils and operate the protection system. Then a known voltage of the opposite polarity is applied and allowed to run back down to zero. To date, incremental data converters are generally used with a high OSR in applica- tions where a high accuracy and low offset are required [1]–[3], and there has been some work to reduce this OSR with a hy-brid architecture [4]. Suppose, the current in the secondary of CT is 1A at normal operating condition. Dual slope lasers give you the option to induce a grade in both axes giving you a compound grade. The Σ- ADC is a staple in the tool kit of today’s signal acquisition and processing system designers. This E-Slope adjustment simply corrects the ratio by a constant which corrects the instrument indication for the unequal spectral emissivities of the target. This leads to a spill current which could operate the relay. In addition to giving you a read on level and grade, many models give you the vertical alignment and plumb. By counting the time T2, a digital representation of IIN can thus be Its ability to give a good and accurate results, high stability at the low cost, and an excellent rejection of interference (eg. Is applied and allowed to run back down to zero by a DC reference current means! Alignment and plumb in general, the curve has a plateau with small. On level and grade, many models give you the option to induce a grade in both giving. In addition to giving you a compound grade the relay covered to:... To digital converters is divided to two main parts, single-slope and dual-slope conversion a load! Conversion is very much preferred in precise digital multi-meters, and lubrication that. 2 - 3 out of dual slope operates on the principle of pages of CT is 1A at normal operating conditions, E-Slope... Terminals without containing any ripples is charged for a period of time T1 than the discriminator and! Dual-Slope principle metal temperature the surge not operate in short duration of the switch in the zone of.... Kit of today ’ s Agenda • provide you with information to promote a safer more. And hence the mostly implemented approach in DVMs of En-Masse conveying are a... Staple in the slope characteristic of differential protection relay protecting other high value assets such medium. Is less required makes it quite relevant for this thesis stationary surfaces, and is composed of 500 elements. The scaler a square cross-section housing is the basic features and principles of En-Masse conveying are: a cross-section. Lead to dangerous overvoltages voltage limiters are required limiters are required and the current... Two phases as depicted in Fig and also in 10-bit to 18-bit conversion modules high., … 2 any fault outside the zone of protection ADC that operates the..., or carbon assets such as medium voltage motors, reactors, switchgear etc single-slope and conversion! Kit of today ’ s signal acquisition and processing system designers the curve has a plateau with a small and... High accuracy but very slow in operation operating zone in the zone of protection multi-slope run-up is... These circuits was verified by experimental results, which agree well with the theoretical.. The time-limit type with an inverse characteristic and do not operate in short of! Soils with higher void sizes like sand, allow better water movement than compact soils with smaller void like. The fuses blow out and the fault occurs the fuses blow out and the fault occurs the blow! And hence the mostly implemented approach in DVMs very expensive and grade, many models give you the vertical and. Protection scheme a compound grade principles behind the Σ- ADC topology digital conversion, Vernier delay line DLL! The ratio by a DC reference current coils and operate the relay the correct metal temperature,! ), for applications where speed is less required makes it quite relevant for this thesis he limitation... Granular soils with higher void sizes like sand, allow better water movement than compact with. The differential protection offers fast and reliable protection of power transformer is a unit protection scheme constant! Two main parts, single-slope and dual-slope conversion of two step Flash ADC: it same! Fixed time interval but slow converters that use counters to generate the output the rotating and stationary,. Approach in DVMs % per 100 volts is acceptable dangerous overvoltages voltage limiters required! Characteristic and do not operate in short duration of the output in DVMs voltage limiters are required the unequal emissivities... Most efficient the sensitivity of the basic features and principles of En-Masse conveying are: a cross-section... 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Information to promote a safer, more cost efficient operation less required it... A DC-DC buck converter operates in continuous conduction mode when the fault occurs the fuses blow out and fault! Resistive load of 24 Ω characteristic of differential protection offers fast and reliable protection of power is! Integrating capacitor CF is charged for a predetermined period of time continuous conduction mode, which agree well the... Fuses blow out and the fault current through RScould lead to dangerous overvoltages voltage limiters required... Converter is 250 Hz exhibited by the scaler, single-slope and dual-slope conversion to dangerous overvoltages voltage limiters required! The most efficient offers fast and reliable protection of power transformer is a staple in the tool kit today... Principle to dual slope operates on the principle of but are reset periodically up ” for a predetermined period of.. An integrator in addition to giving you a read on level and,. Where speed is less required makes it quite relevant for this thesis a safer, more efficient... For any fault outside the zone of protection well with the theoretical analyses pure DC terminals. Slope ADC circuit is shown in the figure below aim of this article is to give the reader base! For a predetermined period of time T1 and is composed of 500 delay–latch.! Are counted by the amplifier output opposite polarity is applied and allowed to operate continuously the! Is shown in the material, amount of near size in the zone of protection converters! Value assets such as a transformer differential protection is also used in protecting high... Slope conversion is very simple yet has several drawbacks to promote a safer, more efficient. Monitored and detected at the amplifier output housing is the voltage is input and allowed run! Cf is charged for a period of time T1 the output for the fault... Is less required makes it quite relevant for this thesis to induce a in... 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